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Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo. Search icon An illustration of a magnifying glass. User icon An illustration of a person's head and chest. up Log in. Web icon An illustration of a computer application window Wayback Machine Texts icon An illustration of an open book.

Books Video icon An illustration of two cells of a film strip. Video Audio icon An illustration of an audio speaker. Audio Software icon An illustration of a 3. Software Images icon An illustration of two photographs. Images Donate icon An illustration of a heart shape Donate Ellipses icon An illustration of text ellipses. This study will attempt to cover: first. Alcoholics Anonymous as a community resource for the mass rehabilitation of alcoholic women; and second, six case studies of the work that is being done for women alcoholicsi A study of Alcoholics Anonymous involves such questions as these: whet type of woman will accept Alcoholics Anonymous?

Ihat kinds of treatment does Alcoholics Anonymous offer? The method by which the materials for this thesis were gathered, ar- ranged, and edited, is as follows: The study was limited to four Alcoholics Anonymous groups in Massachusetts and New York, study of ten alcoholic wo- men for general acquaintance with the alcoholic woman's problems. The case studies presented are the ones for whom most accurate information was avail- able, end the series includes six case histories.

Material was gathered from several sources, first, from attendance at activities of Alcoholics Anonymous; second, from discussions with women al- coholics; third, from interviews with specialists on alcoholism; fourth, from direct observation of the women -vdiose cases are presented; and fifth.

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The problems examined in the case studies are believed by the "writer to be representative of the problems faced by alcoholic women in the com- munity at large. The schedule used in the case studies is shown in the Appendix.

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When, however, the study of mental dis- orders became a systematic branch of medical investigation, the attitude of the physicians, many of them at least, changed. Attention was directed not only to the so-called alcoholic diseases, but also to the underlying emo- tional aspects of alcoholism. Most modern ideas have forerunners, and the modern idea that alcohol- ism is a disease was expressed hundreds of years before it was considered to be a common medical problem. In the first truly medical view of alcoholism was formulated by the Scottish physician.

Thomas Trotter, who gave the following definition; "In medical language, I consider drun- kenness, strictly speaking, to be a disease, produced by a remote cause, and giving birth to actions in the living body that disorder the functions of health. It is now universally accepted by students of alcoholism, but the idea has not yet been fully accepted by the medical profession generally, nor by the public. The recognition that excessive drinking was in many cases a disease led to a search for its cause. The progress of research was impeded be- cause of the similarity of symptoms between habitual excessive drinking and compulsive alcoholic addiction.

Heavy drinkers and alcoholics are distinct- ly different. The former is the result of bad habit; the latter is a dis- ease.

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However, habitual excessive drinking may lead to alcoholism. This often happens by a process im- perceptible to the drinker. Drinking gets out of control partly because drinking creates difficult problems ifdiich the drinker attempts to meet with 3 more drinking. Peabody differentiated between the two: for the heavy drinker a night's sleep ends a particular alcoholic occasion; for the alcoholic, on the other hand, a period of sleep is but an interval between drinks.

From this it can readily be seen how dangerous a drink the first thing in the morning may be, especially idien the drink is taken to alleviate the depres- sion which follows relief from intoxication. The effect of the one drink is exhilarating, but fleeting. The exhilaration can be maintained only by subsequent drinks. Seliger, Alcoholics Are Sick Peoplep. V diadofl 5 I. InMadame LeGrant, a famous French therapist, stated that there is no cure, but that some alcoholics can be taught to drink water. Genevieve Parkhurst obtained the opinions of forty leading medical authorities on this subject.

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Thirty-four believed that alcoholism is caused by some deep mental end emo- tional distvirbance of which drinking is only a symptom. Eight contended that its cause lies in some fundamental chemical derangement and that its cure must therefore be chemical; they assert that at some future date a chemical will be discovered which will do away with the allergy which makes C I some peoples' systems intolerant to alcohol. Henderson describes the j craving for alcohol as an intolerable frenzy which can be fully appreciated only by those who have experienced it. He believes the problem to be pure- ly biochemical in nature.

He states: Just as the body of the diabetic loses the power of changing the sugar ingested into an assimilable form and is said to develop an intolerance for sugar, so the alcoholic addict gradually loses his tolerance for alcohol end the craving seems to grow.

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It will be found that those individuals who cannot use alcohol normally are deficient in some substance probably present in the cortical cells. Treatment will be simple and will consist in the administration of suitable doses of this substance to those individuals deficient in it who wish to enjoy the benefits of al- I cohol. Jellinek, a speech delivered at the fifth anniversary din- ner of Alcoholics Anonymous in Boston. All evidence is in favor of an organic derangement and indicates a purely scientific problem. Alcohol is poison to him and after the first drink his craving is compulsive and uncontrollable.

The only recovery is through total absti- nence. Haggard and Jellinek believe that the solution to the common cause is not necessary to the solution to the problem, but the general recogni- tion of alcoholism must be directed to the alcoholic himself. The out- standing criterion is the inability to break with the habit. Alcohol serves the ptirpose of creating an artificial social adjustment. The findings are that 7 J. Tiebout says the syndrome of alcoholic addiction contains these ele- ments: first, an intermittent pattern of drinking which in period- ic release of tension; second, a typical superimposed pattern of personali"ty' reactions characterized by an egocentric approach to life; and third, a pro- gressive downhill course ending ultimately in chronic compulsive drinking.

During the intermittent stage, the individual suffers pangs of remorse, guilt and contrition following inebriation. He vows never to let himself get out of hand again. Sooner or later, however, the let-down feeling van- ishes and is replaced by a slowly rising psychic tension. Remorse end similar feelings seem to disappear and evidence of energy and the need for action are present.

As tension rises further and memory of the recent in- ebriation recedes, the fun and excitement of the experience loom larger in the mind of the sufferer. Soon another alcoholic occasion is begun, to be followed by its termination and consequent let-down.

An important variation to this intermittent picture is after the individual has begun to fight the urge to go on sprees; the lure of excitement fades and the battle against the urge causes the individual to resist his inner impulses. He then discovers strength behind them because, despite his best efforts, he is powerless to keep from going on a spree.

He now appreciates that something is happening to him end that he is getting into real trouble. He is more conscious of the need for control and aware of the battle to maintain it. The battle for control, however, in no way changes the intermittent picture of the condition. He becomes sorry for himself because no- body is considerate of him and his feelings even if they are un- voiced. H The second stage changes the personality picture. Regardless of -ttie origi- nal type of personality picture, es the illness becomes acute there seems to be manifest a tendency for the individual to react in essentially "ego- centric" patterns.

A cluster of egocentric traits become welded together. The nuclear pattern is described: first, there is a persistent need for domination. Ftin, excitement, the urge to live dangerously— these traits are exhibited now, and these ell seem to arise out of the individual's deep-seated need to dominate. Second, a negative feeling-tone is present, and manifestations of anger, defiance, hostility, end resentment are pres- ent; these emotions are apt to appear on relatively slight provocation.

And third, a feeling of tremendous relief: the feeling that "everything is wonderful" is evident; the need for expression in these highly affirmative moods is often the cause of the sexual adventures of the alcoholic. Things are beautiful, and the sick people seem in this mood to delict in talking of huge matters; and, as a matter of fact, the individual idio shares in thifi typical behavior has been humorously described as an "individual whose feet are firmly planted in mid-air.

In such a mood it is not pos- sible for him to feel close to people. However, during this period of felt isolation, ho can be and frequently is affable, good-natured, end friendly. Fifth, a seeming contradiction: feelings of inferiority and superiority mingle and exist simultaneously. Sixth, a striving for perfection and self-control. Alcoholics are generally surprised to learn that their im- pulses are the result of inner compunction; they are equally surprised to learn that there is little that can he done for their reactions to alcohol.

Upon learning these facts, the alcoholic's idea of the orderly way things ought to he is upset. The third stage, where intermittence has heen changed into a more or less constant alcoholic pattern, makes it necessary for the alcoholic to he permanently hospitalised. And death is not infre- 12 quently the result. Alcoholic Women. There is a greater incidence of alcoholism in men than in women.

Ten per cent of the four Alcoholics Anonymous groups studied hy the writer were women. Haggard and Jellinek think that there are five to six times as many alcoholic men as women in the United States. Haggard and Jellinek think the issue to be cultural rather then biological. There is a wide variation in the s of alcoholic women in different countries.

In Scandinavia the ratio of male and female addicts is twenty-three to one; in Germany twelve to one; 12 Ibid.

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Twenty- five years ago there was only one woman to twenty-five men alcoholics. Wall found ' the average length of time between definite addiction and hospitalization in men to be twenty years, while for women it is thirteen years. A fac- tor in the rapid psychological deterioration in women may be the relatively more guilt they face in terms of community standards.

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Alcoholics Anonymous also reports that women more frequently have re- ligious conversions and are more likely to possess a certain readiness for religious experience. The female temperament is more sensitive and intui- I tive than the male. Wall made a study of the total consecutive admissions for alcohol- 1 ,1 ism from in Bloomingdale Hospital, White Plains, New York. One' hundred men and fifty women had been admitted during that time. Men i I preferred company of their own sex; the females were different: they pre- ' ferred men for company and disliked other women.

Loose heterosexual activ- j 15 Htjggard and Jellinek, Alcohol Exploredp. The alcoholic woman suffers deeply from a social insufficiency. The woman who is not capable of coming close to other human beings and is conscious of it easily develops into an alco- holic. She feels that some very special favors ought to be given her. She feels that she has a beautiful body and that she ought to have not only the satisfaction of her own love, but also that of others, too.

A tension arises out of this conflict which is relieved by alcoholic indulgence.

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